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传感器Sensors

  Hello, 大家好,今天我们学习的内容是传感器Sensors。我自己对自动化专业的喜爱就是从传感器开始的,太奇妙了!为什么那么小一个元件,它能知道温度?压力?湿度?有了它,就感觉这个世界的万物突然智能了起来。水龙头能自动帮你放水,门可以自动为你打开,生产线上的自动装配、包装及贴标签等等,有没有觉得世界在你面前就那么突然精彩了很多~~

  

 

  言归正传,什么是传感器?

  传感器是一种电气或机械元件,用来测量物体或系统的特性或性能。

  Sensors are electrical or mechanical components that are used to measure a property or behavior of an object or system.

  美国国家标准协会的定义为:传感器是能够对规定的被测量对象做出反应并产生可用输出的装置。

  The definition of American NationalStandards Institute (ANSI) is that a device which provides a usable output in response to a specified measurand.

  下面来看看各种各样的传感器:

  1.机械传感器 Mechanical Sensors

  虽然机械传感器通过电信号采集测量结果,但它们却是通过机械方法测量特性的。机械传感器包括压力传感器、加速感应器、电位计、气体及液体流量计和湿度传感器。

  Mechanical sensors measure a property through mechanical means, although the measurement itself may be collected electronically. Examples of mechanical sensors are Pressure sensors, Accelerometers, Potentiometers,Gas and fluid flow meters and Humidity sensors.

  

 

  2.电传感器 Electrical Sensors

  电传感器测量电磁特性。欧姆表是电传感器的一个实例,它被用来测量电路两端的电阻。

  Electricalsensors measure electric and magnetic properties. An example of an electrical sensor is an ohmmeter, which is used to measure electrical resistance betweentwo points in a circuit.

  

 

  3.热传感器 Thermal Sensors

  热传感器用来测量温度变化,热传感器其中一些类型包括温度计、热电偶、热敏阻器和双金属温度计。

  Thermal sensors measure changes in tempera-ture, there are a variety of types of thermal sensors: Thermometers, Thermocouples, and Thermistors and Bi-metal thermometers.

  下图是一个典型的工业温度传感器:

  

 

  4.化学传感器 Chemical sensors

  化学传感器一般用来检测空气或液体中物质的浓度。化学传感器如氧传感器、一氧化碳探测仪。

  Chemical sensors generally detect the concentration of a substance in the air or in aliquid. Some types of chemical sensors include: Oxygen sensors, Carbon monoxide detectors.

  5.光传感器 Optical Sensors

  光传感器用来检测光波的存在。光传感器有光电探测器、红外传感器、光纤传感器。

  Optical sensors detect the presence of light waves. Some types of optical sensors include: Photodetectors, Infrared sensors, Fiberoptic sensors.

  当然,还有很多不能归类为以上几大类型的其他类型的传感器。

  例如,射线传感器,运动传感器,包括雷达测速仪和测速计;声传感器,包括声波定位仪、地震仪和陀螺仪。

  Radiation sensors, Motion sensors, including radar guns and speedometers, Acoustic,including sonar and seismometers and Gyroscopes.

  虽然传感器被工程师和科学家们频繁地用于研究当中,但它们也用于许多家居用品中。很多日常用品中都有传感器,如触摸式按钮和触摸屏、红外线遥控器、动敏式照明灯、家用恒温器 (Touch-sensitive buttons and screens, infrared remote controls, motion-sensitive lighting, and home thermo- stats)。

  更多新型传感器,尽在www.wulianwangiot.com

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